A miniature high voltage power amplifier is laminated onto a piezoelectric bimorph bender using thermally conductive adhesive. The resulting actuator requires only 3.3V to operate which eliminates the need for an external high-voltage amplifier and wiring harness.

A. J. Fleming, Y. K. Yong (2014): Piezoelectric Actuators with Integrated High Voltage Power Electronics. In: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, (In Press) , 2014.